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Volume 5 - Issue 1 (January 2016)


The Significance of Heating Profiles and its effect on Sintered Ag Die Attach Agglomeration, Aggregation and Adhesion On a Copper Lead Frame Surfaces
Richard Q. Clemente, Blessie B. Basilia, Erik Nino Tolentinoi
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
Index: 10.183x/A510108 aned
ESCI-MML:183X-0501-0108
Sintered Silver (Ag) die attach is known to be one of the options towards lead free packaging was further characterized in terms of varying heat profiles. To be able to understand the mechanisms at different heating combinations, Thermo-gravimetric (TGA) experimentation coupled with design of experiment (DOE) runs were undertaken to look into main factors (Temperature 1) T1 and (time/duration 1) t1 as well as (Temperature 2) T2 and (time/duration 2) t2. The DOE result suggests that the critical factors for sintering include the 2nd temperature plateau (T2) and its duration (t2). T1 and t1 values were not significant in the experiments due to the fact that sintered Ag organic components had volatized during temperature ramp up approaching T1. Also, the DOE suggests higher sintering temperature (T2) and duration (t2) results into optimal shear results which correlates to better agglomeration of silver micro and Nano-particles when examined in scanning electron microscope (SEM). Although the values for T1 were found to be insignificant it is critical that organic burnout is achieved. This was proven in the experiments by re-characterizing a low T1 (100oC) which results to inferior die shear, agglomeration and aggregation results. Further optimization can be achieved by decreasing the durations of T1 and augmenting this duration to T2 wherein actual sintering of silver particles exists.
Author Keywords:- Die Attach, Sintered Silver (Ag), Agglomeration, Aggregation, Design of Experiments
e-ISSN: 2319-183X, p-ISSN: 2319-1821 Source Type: Journal Original Language: English
Document Type: Article Number of pages: 08
© Copyright 2014, All rights reserved.

A Comperative Study of A New Formula of Ciprofloxacin With Five Marketed Brands
Ahmed M. A.Masaad, Majed Al robaian, Mohammed E. A. Shayoub, and Badraddin M. H. Al-hadiya
Abstract      pdf Full text PDF
Index: 10.183x/B510914 aned
ESCI-MML:183X-0501-0914
This study aimed to formulate ciprofloxacin hydrochloride as effervescent tablets and comparing them with five local marketed ciprofloxacin hydrochloride coated tablets. The samples were selected by different batches numbers randomly and the physicochemical experiments were done according to monographs and microbiological sensitivity test also was done on microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Salmonellapara typhi and Staphylococcus aureus). The new formula give more phrmacological effect than marketed brands due to improvement of physicochemical properties.
Author Keywords:- quality control tests, ciprofloxacin, dissolution, weight variation, hardness, friability and disintegration.
e-ISSN: 2319-183X, p-ISSN: 2319-1821 Source Type: Journal Original Language: English
Document Type: Article Number of pages: 06
© Copyright 2014, All rights reserved.

A Real Time Static & Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition System
KSK Swamy, C mahesh, Ch Sandeep Kumar
Abstract      pdf Full text PDF
Hand gesture recognition system plays a vital role in our day to day life. This hand gesture recognition system provides us natural, innovative, user friendly way of interaction with the computer which is more familiar to us. Gesture recognition has a wide area of application including human machine interaction, sign language, game technology robotics etc. There are different static hand gestures defined these are representing one, two, three, four, five. There are different dynamic hand gestures defined these are representing waving hand, fist hand, vertical hand, and horizontal hand. We developed a simple and fast motion image based algorithm. Gestures recognition deals with the goal of interpreting human gestures via mathematical algorithm In general, it is suitable to control home appliances using hand gestures.
Author Keywords:- Normalization, Skin Color Detection, Skin Color Model, Hand Gesture Recognition.
e-ISSN: 2319-183X, p-ISSN: 2319-1821 Source Type: Journal Original Language: English
Document Type: Article Number of pages: 07
© Copyright 2014, All rights reserved.

Face Recognition Using PCA and Wavelet Method: International Journal of Engineering and Science
Srujana, B Laxman, P Suresh
Abstract      pdf Full text PDF
This paper proposes a new method of face recognition which is used for face recognition by Wavelet with PCA method. For face recognition we have used a two-step method, first Wavelet is used to transform the faces to a more discriminated space and then principal component analysis (PCA) is applied. The proposed method produced a significant improvement which includes a substantial reduction in error rate and in time of processing during the obtaining PCA orthonormal basis related poses and variations. In this proposed system, a methodology is given for improving the robustness of a face recognition system based on two well-known statistical modeling methods to represent a face image: Principal Component extract the discriminates features from the face. Preprocessing of human face image is done using Gabor wavelets which eliminates the variations due to pose, lighting and features to some extent. PCA extract low dimensional and discriminating feature vectors and these feature vectors were used for classification. The classification stage uses nearest neighbour as classifier. This proposed system will use the ORL face data base with 100 frontal images corresponding to10 different subjects of variable illumination and facial expressions.
Author Keywords:- Face recognition, Gabor Wavelet transform, Principal Component Analysis.
e-ISSN: 2319-183X, p-ISSN: 2319-1821 Source Type: Journal Original Language: English
Document Type: Article Number of pages: 04
© Copyright 2014, All rights reserved.

Data Hiding Scheme in Digital Image using Steganographic Techniques
T Maheshwar, Am Krishna, A Sereesha
Abstract      pdf Full text PDF
Steganography is hiding the secret data into a cover object to protect it from unauthorized access. It is a technique of invisible communication which hides the existence of the message. If the cover object used is an image, the steganography is known as image steganography. It has many applications like Online transactions, military communication etc. In this paper we are discussing Existing important image steganography techniques like Least Significant Bit (LSB), Pixel Value Differencing (PVD), and Modified Kekre Algorithm (MKA) etc.
Author Keywords:- Steganography, digital image, LSB, cover- image, stego-image, Peak Signal to Noise ratio, Mean Square Error.
e-ISSN: 2319-183X, p-ISSN: 2319-1821 Source Type: Journal Original Language: English
Document Type: Article Number of pages: 07
© Copyright 2014, All rights reserved.

A Dwt Based Approach for Steganography Using Biometrics
Narsimha, K Srinivasulu, Shanti
Abstract      pdf Full text PDF
Steganography is the art of hiding the existence of data in another transmission medium to achieve secret communication. It does not replace cryptography but rather boosts the security using its obscurity features. Steganography method used in this paper is based on biometrics. And the biometric feature used to implement Steganography is skin tone region of images. Here secret data is embedded within skin region of image that will provide an excellent secure location for data hiding. For this skin tone detection is performed using HSV (Hue, Saturation and Value) color space. Additionally secret data embedding is performed using frequency domain approach - DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform), DWT outperforms than DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform). Secret data is hidden in one of the high frequency sub-band of DWT by tracing skin pixels in that sub-band. Different steps of data hiding are applied by cropping an image interactively. Cropping results into an enhanced security than hiding data without cropping i.e. in whole image, so cropped region works as a key at decoding side. This study shows that by adopting an object oriented Steganography mechanism, in the sense that, we track skin tone objects in image, we get a higher security. And also satisfactory PSNR (Peak- Signal-to-Noise Ratio) is obtained.
Author Keywords:-
e-ISSN: 2319-183X, p-ISSN: 2319-1821 Source Type: Journal Original Language: English
Document Type: Article Number of pages: 12
© Copyright 2014, All rights reserved.

Introduction of Pattern Recognition with various Approaches
Tiwary, Shiva ramakrishna,B Sandeep
Abstract      pdf Full text PDF
The objective of this paper is To Familiarize with the fundamental concepts of pattern recognition (PR) & discusses various approaches for same. This paper deals issues: definition of PR (Pattern recognition), PR as System, approaches for PR.
Author Keywords:- About five key words in alphabetical order, separated by comma.
e-ISSN: 2319-183X, p-ISSN: 2319-1821 Source Type: Journal Original Language: English
Document Type: Article Number of pages: 05
© Copyright 2014, All rights reserved.

Age Related Macula Detection Using Trimmed Median Filter (TMF)
Shanti, C Girishkumar, Md Rizwan
Abstract      pdf Full text PDF
The Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a deterioration or breakdown of the eye's macula. The macula is a small area in the retina ,the light-sensitive tissue lining the back of the eye that is responsible for your central vision, allowing you to see fine details clearly. Most important part of the retina for human vision is fovea. The destruction of delicate cones of fovea causes the person to become blind. The size of fovea zone in fundus eye image is related to various diseases that lead to blindness. Usually a circle of radius 200 micron is approximately the zone of fovea. If the radius is smaller then it may be an indication of an infection of the eye that may lead to disease. The radius of the fovea region is also an indication of the stages of retinopathy. This paper compares the cases where the images are exposed to two types of noises like salt and pepper and Gaussian noise ,De noising using two different filters namely adaptive wavelet filter and Modified Decision Based Unsymmetrical Trimmed Median Filter (MDBUTMF) .The two methods are compared on the basis of PSNR values. The proposed method is used to carry out general-purpose method for detecting the Fovea region of noisy images. Then using Mathematical Morphology the blood vessel and hence the fovea region is found. Publicly available DRIVE database of 250 people was taken with different eye problems are analyzed and the profosed filter filter outperform the excising methodology .Matlab 7.5 tool box was used to analysize the result.
Author Keywords:- Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), Median Filter (MF), Fundus, Unsymmetric Trimmed Median Filter (UTMF), Alpha Trimmed Mean Filtering (ATMF), Modified Decision Based Unsymmetrical Trimmed Median Filter (MDBUTMF).
e-ISSN: 2319-183X, p-ISSN: 2319-1821 Source Type: Journal Original Language: English
Document Type: Article Number of pages: 06
© Copyright 2014, All rights reserved.

Design of Low Power and Area Efficient Carry Select Adder (CSLA) Using Verilog Language
T Maheshwar,Mohammed Abdul Azeez, AN Bhatt
Abstract      pdf Full text PDF
Carry select method has deemed to be a good compromise between cost and performance in carry propagation adder design. However conventional carry select adder (CSLA) is still area consuming due to the dual ripple carry adder structure. The excessive area overhead makes conventional carry select adder (CSLA) relatively unattractive but this has been the circumvented by the use of add-one circuit. In this an area efficient modified CSLA scheme based on a new first zero detection logic is proposed. The gate count in 32-bit modified CSLA can be greatly reduced, design proposed in this paper has been developed using VERILOG language and synthesized in XILINX13.2 version.
Author Keywords:-
e-ISSN: 2319-183X, p-ISSN: 2319-1821 Source Type: Journal Original Language: English
Document Type: Article Number of pages: 07
© Copyright 2014, All rights reserved.


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