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Volume 3 - Issue 7

Enhancement of Sensor for Load Frequency Control and Fault Detection in Power Systems
Dr. Javed Khan Bhutto, Bikaner Meenu Kanwar, Sawan Kumar Sharma, Rahul Garg
Index: 10.183X/A370108 aned
ESCI-MML: 183X-0307-0108
Abstract:
In modern day power systems there are frequent variations in load which results in undesirable change in frequency. Sensors are being used to observe the variations and restore the frequency. But the design of sensor is mostly restricted to conventional engineering techniques. Conventional sensors have low degree of sensitivity and therefore have poor robustness. Here, an attempt is made to develop a sensor for fault detection and its isolation for load frequency control in power system using model based design approach. The purpose is to monitor from external end smart operation of controller for load frequency control in power system. The outcomes of sensor may be implemented on controller for load frequency control unit in power system. Also the change in frequency due to changes in load can be controlled to restore normal frequency by applying the sensor output to the controller which in turn controls fuel supply and therefore frequency in load affected power system.


e-ISSN: 2319-183X, p-ISSN: 2319-1821 Source Type: Journal Original Language: English
Document Type: Article Number of pages: 08
© Copyright 2014, All rights reserved.

Synthesis of Cd doped Polyaniline for supercapacitor
V. G. Phadnis, K. R. Jagdeo
Index: 10.183X/B370913 aned
ESCI-MML: 183X-0307-0913
Abstract:
Polyaniline (PANI) is an important conducting polymer because of its high conductivity in doped state. Also it exhibits electronic, optical, magnetic properties which lead to its applications in a wide range of areas like photovoltaic cells, light emitting diode, biosensors, electronic sensors, electromagnetic radiation absorbers and electromagnetic shields. In this study Cd was doped in polyanline (PANI) by chemical oxidation method. Specific capacitance measured by cyclic voltametry was found to be increased due to doping of Cd in PANI.


Author Keywords: Polyaniline, chemical oxidation, specific capacitance.
e-ISSN: 2319-183X, p-ISSN: 2319-1821 Source Type: Journal Original Language: English
Document Type: Article Number of pages: 05
© Copyright 2014, All rights reserved.

Computational Study of Degeneracy in Initial Basic Feasible Solution for the Transportation Problem
Gustavo Valentim Loch, Arinei Carlos Lindbeck da Silva, Tania Cordeiro Lindbeck da Silva
Index: 10.183X/C371419 aned
ESCI-MML: 183X-0307-1419
Abstract:
The Transportation Problem is a classic problem of mathematical programming and may be applied to a variety of real life problems. Not only is it used in commodity transportation problems, but also in other applications. The objective in the problem is to determine the amounts shipped from each source to each destination minimizing the total ship cost, respecting supply and demand constraints. The algorithms to solve the problem usually start with an initial basic feasible solution and then solution is iteratively improved. In order to obtain the initial solution the three most cited methods in the literature are Northwest Corner Rule, the Least Cost Method and the Vogel Method. The problem is that the initial feasible solution may not be basic and then the basis needs to be completed with degenerated variables. This paper presents a study of degeneracy occurrence when the Least Cost Method is used to obtain the initial feasible solution, comparing different problem sizes, and ranges of cost, supplies and demands.


Author Keywords: - Computational experiment, Transportation Problem, Degeneracy Occurrence, Least Cost Method
e-ISSN: 2319-183X, p-ISSN: 2319-1821 Source Type: Journal Original Language: English
Document Type: Article Number of pages: 06
© Copyright 2014, All rights reserved.

The Effect of Concrete Rigid Construction for development Of Rural Road Transport on Land Values
Herman Turu, M. Yamin Jinca, Muh. Asdar
Index: 10.183X/D372023 aned
ESCI-MML: 183X-0307-2023
Abstract:
This study was conducted to clarify the effect of the development of concrete road to the land values, as a case study in Moncongloe District of Maros Regency, Province South Sulawesi, Indonesia, using the technique of cluster sampling survey, the location of the study consisted of three segments based on concrete road construction time. The increase in land values from 2009 to 2013 before and after the development of a concrete road, the distance from the city center and road development costs are measured variables. The analysis showed that the ratio of the value of land and development costs in 2010 road segment I of 0.93, in 2011 the segment II and segment III at 1.14.


Author Keywords: - Concrete Roads, land values, construction costs.
e-ISSN: 2319-183X, p-ISSN: 2319-1821 Source Type: Journal Original Language: English
Document Type: Article Number of pages: 04
© Copyright 2014, All rights reserved.

Identification of Ischemic Stroke Stages in CT scan Brain Images Using Imagej Software
Saleh Jomah Said, Johan AE Noor, Yuyun Yueniwati
Index: 10.183X/E372431 aned
ESCI-MML: 183X-0307-2431
Abstract:
Rationale and Objectives: Ischemic strokes represent more than 80% of all stroke cases and are characterized by the occlusion of a blood vessel due to a thrombus or embolus. The temporal evolution of ischemic strokes occurs in four stages, i.e. Hyperacute, Acute, Subacute and Chronic. CT image by using ImageJ software help to identify stages of ischemic stroke in human brain as an alternative method in the CT diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Eighty samples of CT brain images were selected as research subjects in this study and confirmed examination by specialists in Department of Radiology at Saiful Anwar Public Hospital, Malang. Each CT scan brain image was analyzed using ImageJ version 1.48 software using standard Hounsfield unit. Results: The numerical values of gray scale for each stage of ischemic stroke stages have been identified using ImageJ software. They were as follows. The mean gray value level of normal cases was ≥ 29, of hyperacute was between 25 - 29, of acute cases was between 23 - 26, of subacute cases was between 20 - 23, and of chronic cases was ≤ 20. Conclusions: ImageJ is easy to use for identification of ischemic stroke stages in CT scan brain images. It has the ability to assess the density of each pixel and the density measurements have been calibrated to reflect the true Hounsfield unit values. The ratio of the accuracy of imageJ software in identification of ischemic stroke stages in CT scan brain images in this study was 90%.
Author Keywords: CT scan images, Hounsfield Unit, Ischemic stroke, ImageJ software.
e-ISSN: 2319-183X, p-ISSN: 2319-1821 Source Type: Journal Original Language: English
Document Type: Article Number of pages: 08
© Copyright 2014, All rights reserved.

MDO and LNG as Fuels (Duel Fuel) to Support Sustainable Maritime Transport (A Case Study in KM. Ciremai)
Mochamad Furqon Rochyana, M. Yamin Jinca, Jusuf Siahaya
Index: 10.183X/F373238 aned
ESCI-MML: 183X-0307-3238
Abstract:
The rising fuel prices are a problem swelling of vessel operating expenses, so the shipping companies are trying to use LNG as an alternative energy on the main engine and auxiliary engine. This research aims to know the cost of investment process the implementation of the system dual fuel MDO and LNG, and economize operational costs. Research methods Using libraries study operational data weather, in analysis of economically about the ratio of LNG and MDO. It was Found that fuel use MDO to LNG need modification process without the replacement machine, adding to some of the equipment based on the rule class, including Bureau Types of Indonesia (BKI), Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (classnk) and so on. The systems use duel fuel combustion produces a perfect; the emissions from the womb by sulphur oxide (SOX) can be sent down to 90-95% and low levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) to 20 % to 25 %.
Author Keywords: Duel Fuel, operational costs, emissions and efficiency.
e-ISSN: 2319-183X, p-ISSN: 2319-1821 Source Type: Journal Original Language: English
Document Type: Article Number of pages: 07
© Copyright 2014, All rights reserved.

Enhancing Performance of Genetic Algorithm for Static Job-Shop Scheduling Problemse
K.Luchoomun, P.Auckloo, B.Sonah
Index: 10.183X/G373949 aned
ESCI-MML: 183X-0307-3949
Abstract:
The Job Shop scheduling problem is one of the hardest combinatorial optimisation problems in various industrial environments. It consists of several jobs each with one or more operations, to be allocated to a set of machines with a view to minimise the makespan. In this paper, we begin by describing the Job Shop scheduling problem and the evolutionary algorithm used to solve the machine allocation problem. We then, propose additional genetic operators (random selection of chromosomes to initialise the population, measuring the initial population fitness to identify good chromosomes, cloning to improve survival probability) to enhance the existing genetic algorithm in terms of getting a shorter makespan in less computational time. Finally, we investigate the effect of population size, crossover rate and mutation rate on the makespan for both the existing genetic algorithm and the enhanced genetic algorithm. Our result shows that the enhanced genetic algorithm produce the optimal makespan in a shorter genetic evolution than existing genetic algorithm.


Author Keywords: Evolutionary Algorithm (EA), Genetic Algorithm (GA), Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP), Non-deterministic polynomial time (NP).
e-ISSN: 2319-183X, p-ISSN: 2319-1821 Source Type: Journal Original Language: English
Document Type: Article Number of pages: 11
© Copyright 2014, All rights reserved.

Clean Development Mechanism's Contribution to Sustainability in India
Er.V.K.Sinha, Dr.N.S.Raman
Index: 10.183X/H375058 aned
ESCI-MML: 183X-0307-5058
Abstract:
The challenges of how to respond to climate change and ensure sustainable development are currently high on the political agenda among the world's leading nations. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is a part of the global carbon market, developing rapidly as a result of the Kyoto response towards mitigation of global warming. One of the aims of the CDM is to achieve sustainable development in developing countries, but uncertainty prevails as to whether the CDM is doing what it promises to do. Close to 200 studies on the CDM have been carried out since its birth in 1997 including peer-reviewed articles and reports from the grey literature. However, no overview of the different debates and key issues in the CDM exists. This paper attempts to assess the state of knowledge on how the CDM contributes towards sustainable development (SD) including poverty alleviation.
Author Keywords: ...
e-ISSN: 2319-183X, p-ISSN: 2319-1821 Source Type: Journal Original Language: English
Document Type: Article Number of pages: 08
© Copyright 2014, All rights reserved.

Effect of Geogrid Reinforced Subgrade on Layer Thickness Design of Low Volume Bituminous Sealed Road Pavements
Charles Anum Adams, Nana Yaw Amofa, Richter Opoku - Boahen
Index: 10.183X/I375967 aned
ESCI-MML: 183X-0307-5967
Abstract:
Geogrid reinforcement is gaining acceptance as an effective way of improving on the properties of naturally occurring soils for road pavement construction. In many tropical countries, lateritic subgrades are common and often rejected after proof rolling during construction due to poor strength. The specific objectives of the research were to 1) Determine the effect of strength of geogrid reinforcement material on the California bearing ratio of a sample of relatively poor lateritic subgrade material under soaked and unsoaked conditions and 2) Establish the effect of geogrid reinforced subgrade on the thickness design of low volume paved roads. Natural lateritic subgrade soil was selected and tested without reinforcement. Then by placing a layer of a certain tri-axial geogrid above the third layer within the sample height, the effects of geogrid reinforcement on California bearing ratio values are investigated. This was undertaken for two strengths of geogrid in both soaked and unsoaked conditions. The California bearing ratio of the soil–geogrid subgrade was used to determine the pavement layer thicknesses for low volume paved road based on the Transport Research Laboratory method of pavement design. Results indicate that base course reduction as a result of geogrid reinforcement for a subgrade tends to decrease with increasing traffic class. A minimum of 15% base course reduction was observed for a surface dressed road with granular road base.
Author Keywords: Geogrid reinforcement, California bearing ratio, lateritic gravel, Subgrade, Pavement layer thicknesses
e-ISSN: 2319-183X, p-ISSN: 2319-1821 Source Type: Journal Original Language: English
Document Type: Article Number of pages: 09
© Copyright 2014, All rights reserved.

Limestone Dust Exposure against Increased Tnfα and Decreased Pulmonary Function Miners on Village Jadi Kecamatan Semanding Kabupaten Tuban
Damayanti Sima Sima Sohilauw, Nurifa Handayani, Safrudin Tolinggi, Soedjajadi Keman, I KetutSudiana
Index: 10.183X/J376873 aned
ESCI-MML: 183X-0307-6873
Abstract:
This study aims to analyze the influence of limestone dust levels to the progressive increase in the levels of TNFα personal and decreased lung function in miners. Analytical observational research methods, from time approach are a prospective longitudinal study research. The sample in the study group 7 miners exposed limestone and unexposed groups 6 office employees Village Jadi Kecamatan Semading Kabupaten Tuban. Data collection techniques with interviews, measurements of total dust working environment, personal dust measurements, blood sampling, and spirometry. TNFα and pulmonary function were measured before and after work. Independent variable is the amount of dust limestone Personal miners. Variable depending on the levels of TNFα and pulmonary function. Age, years of service and smoking habits are variable confounding. Result: The mean levels of personal dust miners after working for 8 hours at 10,407 mg/m 3 and village officials for 0,265 mg/m 3. Increased TNFα on the miners was 71.43% and the employee's office as much as 16.7% rural. The decline in FVC and FEV1 miner is 85.7% and 71.4%, while the FVC and FEV1 for village officials by 50% and 16.7%. By using multiple regression analysis, personal limestone dust does not significantly affect the increase in TNFα (p> 0.05), but the personal limestone dust effect on lung function decline in miners (p <0.05). Age, years of service and smoking habits did not affect the increase in TNFα and decrease lung function. Conclusion: personal limestone dust does not affect the increase in TNFα, but personal limestone dust effect on lung function decline in miners.
Author Keywords: Limestone dust, Limestone Miners, Blood Serum TNFα, Pulmonary function.
e-ISSN: 2319-183X, p-ISSN: 2319-1821 Source Type: Journal Original Language: English
Document Type: Article Number of pages: 06
© Copyright 2014, All rights reserved.

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